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Hidden Voices is a collaboration between the NYC Department of Education and the Museum of the City of New York that was initiated to help City students learn about the countless individuals who are often “hidden” from traditional historical records. Each of the people highlighted in this series has made a positive impact on their communities while serving as outstanding examples of leadership, advocacy, and community service.

For the first time ever, the NYC Department of Education celebrated October 11 as both Italian Heritage Day and Indigenous Peoples’ Day, transitioning from the traditional Columbus Day holiday to recognize the history and culture of both Italian and Native Americans. Broadening the occasion to recognize and celebrate the contributions of Indigenous people not only appropriately acknowledges the rich history of the original inhabitants of this land, but also shines a much-needed light on our country’s many Indigenous figures whose stories deserve more widespread appreciation.

Over the centuries, countless Native Americans have made their mark on our nation through their leadership, vision, courage, talent, character, and sacrifice. Today, we’d like to draw your attention to a few examples of distinguished Native Americans in our history—learn more about each of these figures below, and check out the embedded links to learn more about them. 

Sign at the Entrance of the Qualla Indian Reservation

One cannot fully understand U.S. history without learning about America’s relationship with its Indigenous people since its founding in 1776. (Photo by Gary Boyd. Used under Creative Commons license. Original can be found on Flickr.)

 


Penhawitz

During the 1620s, at the time Dutch settlers arrived in what is now the New York metropolitan region, Penhawitz was sachem, or great chief, of the Canarsee, a band of loosely-organized Lenape people who resided in what is now Brooklyn. Penhawitz was the first tribal leader known to the Dutch, and he sought to maintain positive relationships with the settlers. After massacres of Native Americans during the period of 1643–45 known as Keift’s War, Penhawitz led negotiations to bring an end to the violence, though unfortunately, the peace treaty did not hold.

To learn more about Penhawitz and that early period, check out our official Hidden Voices Project profile on pg. 27 (opens PDF).

Map of Lenape Settlements During Dutch Colonial Period

During the 1600’s, the Lenape people resided in settlements throughout New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut and developed a number of dialects, including Munsee, which was spoken in what is now New York City. (Photo Credit: Wikipedia. Used under Creative Commons license.)

Charles Eastman

The first Native American to be certified in Western medicine, Dr. Charles Eastman (1858–1939) worked as a physician on reservations in South Dakota while become one of the most prolific authors and speakers on Sioux ethno-history. Educated at Boston University, he is considered the first Native American author to write American history from an Indigenous point of view and was politically active in advocating for Native American rights.

You can find more about this extraordinary pioneer, including samples of some of his writings, on World Wisdom’s “Charles Eastman” webpage.

Charles Eastman with one hand on tree and other hand holding a smoking pipe

Dr. Charles Eastman, or “Ohiyesa” helped to create over 32 branches of the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) before serving as an advisor during the creation of the Boy Scouts of America in 1910. (Photo by Estate of Charles Eastman. Used under Creative Commons license.)

Wilma Mankiller

In 1985, Wilma Mankiller became the first woman to serve as chief of the Cherokee Nation, based in Oklahoma. During her 10-year administration, the Cherokee government built new health clinics, created a mobile eye-care clinic, established ambulance services, and created early education, adult education, and job training programs. She developed revenue streams—including factories, retail stores, and restaurants—while establishing self-governance, allowing the Cherokee Nation to manage their own finances. In 1998, Wilma was awarded the U.S. Medal of Freedom, the nation’s highest civilian honor, for her work on behalf of the Cherokee and other Native Americans.

Read more about Wilma Mankiller’s incredible life on the National Women’s History Museum website.

Wilma Mankiller (right) standing next to sculpture of Native American woman

The 18-month Occupation of Alcatraz (1969–1971) by Native American activists would serve as a major catalyst for Wilma Mankiller’s political activism on behalf of Indigenous people across the country. (Photo credit: J. Pat Carter. Used under Creative Commons license. Original can be found on the New York Times.)

Micheal Thornton

In 1973, Michael Thornton, a Navy SEAL from South Carolina from a Cherokee family, received a Medal of Honor for his heroism in Vietnam the year before. Petty Officer Thornton and his commander, Lt. Thomas Norris, were on an intelligence-gathering mission behind enemy lines when they came under fire from a much larger force and were in danger of being surrounded. After they became separated, Thornton learned that Norris had been severely wounded. He returned to retrieve his commander and carries him over his shoulder across 400 yards of open beach, returning enemy fire, until they were safely out of reach and eventually retrieved by the South Vietnamese Navy. A statue depicting Thornton’s heroism was dedicated in 2013 at the National Navy UDT-DEAL Museum in Fort Piece, Florida.

Learn more about Thornton’s story on the U.S. Navy’s official website.

Michael Thornton, Navy SEAL and Medal of Honor recipient, in full uniform and regalia

Out of 130 sailors, Michael Thornton and 15 others were the only ones who graduated out of Basic Underwater Demolition School to join the Sea, Air, Land (SEAL) Team in 1969. (Photo used under Creative Commons license; can be found on Wikipedia)

Louise Erdrich

Author of more than 20 books and winner of multiple awards for her writing, including the 2021 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for her novel, The Night Watchman, Louise Erdrich is an enrolled member of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians and one of the most significant writers of the second wave of the Native American Renaissance. Many of Erdrich’s novels and short stories relate to the North Dakota lands where her ancestors met and mingled, representing Chippewa experiences in the Anglo-American literary tradition. One essayist wrote, “Erdrich’s accomplishment is that she is weaving a body of work that goes beyond portraying contemporary Native American life as descendants of a politically dominated people to explore the great universal questions—questions of identity, pattern versus randomness, and the meaning of life itself.”

For more information about Louise Erdrich, check out the Poetry Foundation’s biography of her on their webpage.

Pulitzer Prize winning author, Louise Erdrich, sitting on a red sofa

Louise Erdrich was part of the first-ever cohort of women admitted to Dartmouth College in 1972. (Photo by Joseph Mehling. Used under Creative Commons license. Original can be found on Dartmouth’s website.)

Deb Haaland

In spring 2021, Deb Haaland became the first Native American to serve as a U.S. Cabinet Secretary after President Joe Biden chose her to lead the Department of the Interior. An enrolled member of the Laguna Pueblo tribe, Haaland previously served as U.S. Representative from New Mexico’s 1st Congressional District, which includes Albuquerque and most of its suburbs. Upon accepting her nomination to the Interior Department, Haaland remarked, “This moment is profound when we consider that a former secretary of the interior once proclaimed his goal was to ‘civilize or exterminate’ us. I am a living testament to the failure of that ideology.”

One of her first acts as Secretary was to create a new unit within the Bureau of Indian Affairs to address the decades-long crisis of missing and murdered Native Americans.

Learn more about Deb Haaland’s remarkable life by checking out this profile of her from the Sierra Club.

Deb Haaland holding eggplants in hand while speaking with a farmer in the middle of an eggplant field

As the nation’s Secretary of the Interior, Deb Haaland (left) oversees nearly a fifth of the US’s public lands. (Photo by Wikimedia Commons. Used under Creative Commons license. Original can be found on Wikimedia Commons.)

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These are just a few of the countless indigenous people who have distinguished themselves over the course of American history and whose stories we honor on Indigenous People’s Day. Explore your school library to learn more about these and many other inspiring Native Americans, past and present, and their impact on our nation.

Missed out on our previous Hidden Heroes installments? Check them out right here on The Morning Bell.


Banner photo by ~Sage~. Used under Creative Commons license. Original can be found on Flickr.

The Morning Bell

Official blog for the NYC Department of Education, home of over 1.1 million students across 1,800+ schools

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NYC Department of Education, 2019